by Nathaniel Altman
People have been enjoying hot springs
and mineral waters for health and pleasure for thousands of years. Although
most of us believe that hot springs and mineral springs are found mainly
in Europe and Japan, there are over two hundred commercial springs here
in the United States, (including several here in New York State), along
with thousands of smaller ones. In European countries like France, Germany,
Italy, Russia and the Czech Republic, therapeutic hot springs bathing (balneology)
is considered part of the medical mainstream. Health facilities at hot
springs are often connected to leading university research centers, and
health insurance pays for treatment. However, with the exception of a core
group of dermatologists, the medical establishment in the United States
and Canada generally frowns on the therapeutic value of hot spring bathing.
In contrast to European spas, medical claims cannot be made for American
hot springs, and their use is restricted to recreation, relaxation, and
stress reduction. On the following pages, we will explore the little-known
world of healing waters and see how they can help us achieve our full health
Q: What are healing springs?
A: Healing springs (which may be of different temperatures)
often contain minerals or gasses that are absorbed into the skin in minute
amounts, where they provide nourishment or stimulate different body processes.
Depending on the chemical composition of the water, European researchers
find that bathing in a warm mineral spring increases metabolism, stimulates
digestion, helps heal the skin, or strengthens the immune system. For example,
bathing in water that is rich in sulfur (often found in California springs)
is prescribed for treating skin diseases like psoriasis and dermatitis.
Q: It seems that humans have always felt a natural affinity for water and that we instinctually know that it's good for us.
A: We are water beings and water is our natural element.
Our bodies contain about seventy percent water, and we need to consume
sufficient water every day in order to survive. Psychologically, hot springs
are extremely soothing: our first home was the liquid environment of our
mother's womb, so warm water bathing allows us to recall primal feelings
of comfort and safety. This is why some feel that when they bathe in a
natural hot spring, they are enveloped by the womb of the Earth Mother.
Q: How long have people been going to hot springs?
A: Although there is evidence
that humans have been using hot springs for over 600,000 years, the practice
of using natural mineral spring water for the prevention and cure of disease
can be traced back about 5000 years ago to the Bronze Age. Many early hot
springs were considered "special" by our human ancestors, who often believed
them to be the abodes of deities, including the Greeks, Romans, Celts and
Mayans. Many European spas began their development during the Middle Ages.
By the mid-nineteenth century, spas like Vichy, Baden Baden and Epsom were
favorite summer destinations for European royalty. Napoleon was said to
have ridden his favorite horse into a spring at Piestany (Slovakia) while
Queen Victoria would visit Wiesbaden spa in Germany every summer in disguise,
hoping that no one would recognize her.
Q: Is it true that many of the hot springs in North America were originally Native American sacred sites?
A: Nearly all of our present-day
hot springs were first discovered by native peoples, who believed them
to be sacred places for healing and peace, open to all. The waters in Hot
Springs, Arkansas, originally known as "The Valley of the Vapors" were
considered sacred by the Tunicas people, while the Mohawks called Saratoga
Springs "Medicine Springs of the Great Manitou". The Iroquois, Shawnee
and Tuscarora peoples often bathed and feasted together in what was later
known as Bedford Springs in Pennsylvania.
Q: How did they develop after that time?
A: Many early American hot springs resorts were modeled after famous European spas. Some of the most popular included Saratoga Springs in New York, Poland Spring, Maine, Calistoga, California, French Lick, Indiana, and White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia. Most reached their heyday towards the end of the 19th century. Some of the Eastern spas were popular with presidents (both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson were avid hot springs enthusiasts), and other famous personalities, including Daniel Webster, Robert Louis Stevenson, Mark Twain and Edgar Allen Poe. The hot springs of the West attracted more colorful clientele, including Buffalo Bill Cody, Butch Cassidy and members of the Hole in the Wall Gang.
Towards the mid-1900's, however, many spas went into decline as faster-acting drugs for arthritis and rheumatism came on the market; at the same time, vacationers began to favor urban entertainment, theme parks, and seaside resorts like Atlantic City and Miami Beach. Many once-popular spas like Bedford Springs (PA) and Ballston Spa (NY) closed down completely, while spas like Poland Spring in Maine became bottling plants. However, many old spa towns are making a comeback. In New York State alone, there is a mineral springs bath has recently opened in a historic hotel in Ballston Spa, and a hot springs complex in Sharon Springs is planning to open soon.
interest in natural lifestyles, physical fitness and alternative healing
have brought about a renewed interest in healing springs. Spa towns which
experienced a decline in popularity fifty years ago like Calistoga (CA), Hot
Springs (AR), and Saratoga Springs (NY) are becoming popular tourist destinations
once again. Although government regulations concerning health claims have
led Americans to appreciate hot springs primarily for their calming effects
and recreational value, many people feel that the hot mineralized water
found in these spas have a marked therapeutic effect on their body.
Q: Does it cost a lot to visit a hot spring?
A: The vast majority of commercial
hot springs in the United States and Canada charge only a nominal fee (usually
between $10 and $20) for day-use, while five-star resorts like The Greenbrier
(WV) and The Homestead (VA), offer accommodation, food and hot spring bathing
for $200 a day and up. A 7-day healing vacation in an Eastern European
spa town like Marienbad (Czech Republic) or Piestany, including a medical
exam, balneotherapy, food and hotel accommodation, can cost as little as
$60 a day: a similar program in a Western European spa would run between
$120-200 a day. Perhaps the best bargain are the hot springs in Budapest,
which date from pre-Celtic times: admission to most
of the city's historic spas costs less than $12. And some municipal hot springs in Japan - including those found in the famous spa towns of Kusatsu Onsen and Nozawa Onsen- are completely free of charge.
Q: Aside from bathing, what do these places offer?
A: In addition to the curative
waters themselves, many of today's hot spring resorts have licensed health
professionals on staff, who provide natural and complementary treatments
like acupuncture, aromatherapy, massage, mud baths, herbal wraps, fasting
programs, relaxation classes and fitness training. Hot springs and mineral
springs also appeal to those who seek pleasure and relaxation through delicious
cuisine, comfortable accommodations, beautiful gardens and congenial people.
Q: What is the "healing triad"?
A: Balneotherapists believe
that there are three primary ways that hot springs can heal: through bathing,
by drinking certain types of mineral water in prescribed amounts, and by
inhaling the warm vapors of therapeutic springs.
Q: What are the major diseases that can be treated at hot springs?
A: European and Japanese
balneologists have identified numerous health problems that respond to
hot springs bathing. They include rheumatism, metabolic diseases
(especially diabetes, obesity and gout), chronic gastrointestinal diseases,
chronic mild respiratory diseases, moderate or mild hypertension, peripheral
circulatory diseases (affecting the hands and feet), chronic skin diseases
(including psoriasis and eczema), psychosomatic and stress-related diseases,
autonomic nervous system dysfunction, vibration disorder, conditions resulting
from trauma, accident and sports-related injuries, chronic gynecological
diseases, and in preventive medicine and in building up physical strength
and general immunity. Therapeutic drinking is often used to treat gastrointestinal,
kidney and liver disorders, while inhalation is prescribed for people suffering
from sinus problems, asthma and other respiratory problems.
Q: How long does it take to heal?
A: A normal course of therapy
at a European spa usually takes two to three weeks. Depending on the symptoms,
this may involve therapeutic bathing, drinking, or inhaling mineral water
as a vapor or mist, often accompanied by massage, mud packs, physical therapy,
aromatherapy and other modalities. Many spas in the USA and abroad offer
one or two day relaxation or beauty programs. And if you just want to enjoy
the mineral water, its' relaxing effects are experienced within minutes
after you enter the pool.
Q: Can hot spring bathing be dangerous?
A: Although bathing in thermal
and mineral springs is both healthful and relaxing for the vast majority
of individuals, it isn't for everyone. People suffering from diseases involving
high fever with progressing or exacerbating symptoms, severe hypertension
and uncompensated congestive heart failure, malignant tumor (and cancer
in general), serious liver, kidney or circulatory diseases, serious heart
arrhythmias (irregular heartbeat) , recent heart attack or stroke, diseases
involving hemorrhage and severe anemia, and acute mental illness should
avoid bathing in hot springs. Women in early and late stages of pregnancy
should check with a qualified health professional before "taking the waters."
Q: How long should you stay in the water?
A; While the recommended
time will vary depending on water temperature, European balneologists suggest
a ten to fifteen minute bath at 102 degrees Fahrenheit (39 degrees C.) for a normal, healthy person. Heat
exhaustion can result if you stay in the water too long. Also, avoid soaking
in a hot spring alone. If you are with children or elderly adults,
be especially mindful of possible exhaustion or overheating. Do not enter
a hot pool if you are under the influence of alcohol or psychotrophic drugs, and if you feel faint or dizzy, leave the pool immediately.
Make sure you drink plenty of cool water (not from the hot springs itself)
to avoid dehydration. After bathing, relax for twenty to thirty minutes
to enjoy the full benefits of your therapeutic bath.
Copyright ©2020 by Nathaniel Altman.